IAU Symposium 278, the ninth of the ‘Oxford’ conferences on cultural astronomy, presents a diverse range of disciplinary perspectives on a set of problems that continue to raise exciting and challenging new research questions and promote vigorous debate. It extends discussions about cultural astronomy beyond the community of ‘Western’ academics to focus on the ethnoastronomy and archaeoastronomy of South America, Central and North America, and elsewhere. Highlights include vigourous debates about Chankillo, a recently discovered solar observation site in coastal Peru dating to c. 300 BC. The first IAU Symposium devoted to this topic not only discusses new discoveries and interpretations but also considers broader issues of mutual interest across disciplines in cultural astronomy, such as field methodology and social theory. This volume is valuable not just to researchers working in these fields, but to anyone who takes an interest in the protection of astronomical heritage.